Time: 9 days, 30-60 minutes/day
Overview: Students begin their expedition by investigating local and mountain biodiversity and exploring the environmental threats and conservation measures related to the biodiversity of these two areas.
Objectives: To become familiar with local native plants through the investigation of and comparison to native plants in the mountain environment.
National Standards Addressed (attached below)
Classroom: Think Globally, Act Locally (attached below)
Schoolyard: What's In My Backyard? (attached below)
- Expedition Descriptions (attached below)
- Role Cards(attached below)
- Internet access
- Maps of Nevado Huascarán, Mt. Makalu, and Blair Mountain (Attached below - note: These are large files and may take some time to load.)
- Plant cards (see Day Three of Content Background for more information)
- World map
- Mountain Plant Log (attached below)
- Mountain Vegetation Zones (attached below)
- Materials for two activities
Day One: Planning the expedition: Assign teams and roles; Students research mountain weather and brainstorm gear list.
Day Two: Students read Module 2, page 1: Planning the Route and create their expedition itineraries.
Day Three: Conduct Taxonomist-For-A-Day activity
Day Four: Conduct Schoolyard Activity: What's In My Backyard?
Day Five: The expedition begins: Student teams read through the first leg of their expeditions (Module 2, Part 1) and record data on Mountain Plant Log.
Day Six: Student teams analyze the data entered into Mountain Plant Log.
Day Seven: Students read Module 2, Part 2 and investigate ecotourism.
Day Eight: Conduct Classroom Activity: Think Globally, Act Locally.
Day Nine: Expedition de-briefing.
Now that students have become mountain "experts," they are ready to plan and begin their expeditions.
Day One: Planning the Expedition
1. Explain to the class, if you haven't already, that they are about to embark on an expedition. Ask them, Do you know someone who has had a personal experience in the mountains? What did they share with you about this experience? Have you ever climbed a mountain?
2. Divide the class into three teams. Explain that each team will carry out an expedition in one of three mountain ranges: the longest (Andes), the tallest (Himalayas), or the oldest (Appalachians). Write the name of each mountain range on a separate piece of paper and place the papers in a hat or a bowl. Have each team select a piece of paper. Alternatively, read to students the Expedition Descriptions and have them select a first and second choice. Select teams accordingly, trying to honor their choices as much as possible.
3. Print out the page titled Expedition Descriptions (attached below). Cut out the individual descriptions and provide each team with the appropriate one. Ask student teams to read together the description of their expedition.
4. Each team member will assume a role for the duration of the expedition (remainder of the unit). There are nine roles for each team, which provides 27 roles in total. We give suggestions below, but you can also brainstorm new or additional roles with your students. Write the roles on the board at the front of the classroom and ask students to come up with suggestions for what each role might entail.
Sacred Mountain Expert
5. Print out three copies of the page titled Role Cards (attached below). Cut out the individual role cards and provide each team with one set. Ask each team member to select a role. Once students have selected their roles, encourage them to establish a set of questions unique to their role. For example, Wearing glasses as a Botanist, what questions do you have? How do you think your questions will affect what you see on the expedition?
6. Once teams and roles have been selected, students begin to prepare for their expeditions. Have each team research when the best time of year is to conduct their expeditions. What will the temperature range be at this time of year? What weather conditions might you expect? Ask them to also consider what terrain conditions they might encounter along the way. Challenge them by asking, Having read about Johan Reinhard's expedition, what conditions do you think you need to keep in mind as you plan your expedition? As a class, compile a list of weather and terrain conditions they might encounter as they ascend their mountains. Each team Expedition Leader should record this list in their journal for future reference. Here is some information to help you guide this discussion:
In conducting their research, students may find temperature information in °C instead of °F, especially for the Andes and Himalayas. Since we are familiar with °F as the standard unit of temperature in the United States, it might be useful to have students convert temperatures to °F using the following equation:
°F = (9/5) °C + 32
As an extension, students can practice their math skills by creating a temperature conversion chart for the range of temperatures they will encounter on their expedition. They can keep this chart in their journals and refer to it along the expedition route.
On any given mountain, a variety of microclimates are created by exposed ridges, sheltered valleys, alpine lakes, steep slopes, and ravines. In addition, the climate varies from day to day and hour to hour. Sunny and clear weather in the morning can quickly turn into driving rain, strong winds, heavy snow, or dense fog as a mountain storm moves over the summit. There are, however, some generally consistent conditions to consider. This discussion of weather conditions presents an opportunity to investigate the science of weather patterns. Additionally, links can be made to the basic requirements of humans.
Cold. Air cools approximately 3°F for every 1,000 foot rise in altitude. This is referred to as the adiabatic rate. Without proper protection, humans exposed to extreme cold can experience frostbite or hypothermia.
Snow. Beautiful as it is, snow can create challenges in the mountains. Although it may cover awkward terrain, making it easier to climb, snow can also be too soft to support a climber's weight or too hard and slick, causing a climber to slip. In addition to covering awkward terrain, snow covers up potentially hazardous spots, like running water or crevasses. Blizzards can impair visability and disguise landmarks. Finally, unprotected eyes receiving the sun's reflection off the snow can suffer from snow blindness.
Thin air. The concentration of oxygen in the air is the same at all altitudes, but atmospheric pressure-which determines how much air enters the lungs with each breath-does decrease with altitude. As less air enters the lungs, the body tries to compensate by breathing faster and deeper. This begins a chain of reactions that can result in altitude sickness.
At about 8,000 feet, climbers may begin to experience symptoms of altitude sickness or Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS), including loss of appetite, impaired judgment, nausea, vomiting, headache, shortness of breath, exhaustion, insomnia, and dizziness. Climbers with AMS should remain at the same altitude until symptoms have gone away. If they don't, climbers should descend below where they began to feel sick and allow time for acclimatization. Without proper treatment, AMS may develop into severe AMS or cerebral or pulmonary edema. Serious altitude sickness is rare below 10,000 feet (3,000 meters).
Rain. Rainfall is greatest at an altitude around 6,500 feet. Above this altitude there is less rain. Rain often falls on one side of the mountain, leaving the other side-the mountain's rain shadow-much drier. At the highest elevations, rain falls as snow.
Wind. Increases with altitude.
Lightning. It is difficult to find refuge on the top of mountains, so climbers are often exposed to dangerous weather like lightning storms.
Mountains are rugged places to visit and live. Here are some common mountain features for your students to be prepared for:
Earthquakes. Seismic activity due to plate movement is more common in mountain areas, resulting in earthquakes or tremors.
Volcanic eruptions. Some mountains are volcanic in origin; many remain active. Population pressures are causing people to live closer and closer to volcanoes, which has resulted in an increase in the number of eruption-related deaths.
Landslides. Steep slopes and thin soils make mountains particularly susceptible to the sudden sliding of rocks and soil. Deforested slopes are even more unstable because when it rains resistance, provided by roots, is missing and soils slide down slope.
Avalanche. The eruption of a volcano, earthquakes, or the addition of new snow can trigger a sudden rush of snow down steep mountain slopes.
Glaciers. Snow collects on mountaintops and forms rivers of ice. As glaciers move down mountains, they carry with them soil and rocks. When the snow melts, these materials are left behind. Single large rocks or boulders are called glacial erratics. Mounds of dirt and smaller stones are called glacial moraines. As glaciers drag sharp stones along bare rock on mountains, deep scratches, called striations, are cut. Worldwide, mountain glaciers are receding due to global warming.
River floods. Mountain-fed rivers can be swift and dangerous, which makes river crossings particularly hazardous for climbers. In addition, floods are a common mountain feature, especially in areas that have been heavily affected by humans.
Steep slopes. Mountains can be steep enough to require climbing equipment, such as pitons, crampons, ropes, and harnesses.
Crevasses. Deep cracks in glaciers can be hard to detect and even harder to navigate around.
7. Next, students create a list of gear and supplies they will need for their expedition. Ask them, How will you prepare for the conditions you will probably encounter? What type of gear do you need to bring along? As a class, compile a gear checklist. Since the Logistics Officers are responsible for making sure each item on the list is acquired before the expedition begins, they should record this list in their journals. Below is a list to help you guide this discussion.
Trail mix or G.O.R.P. (Good Old Raisins and Peanuts) is a high-energy snack that many hikers rely on to give them a boost during long days of trekking. To make their expedition more authentic, have students prepare a large batch of trail mix to munch on during their expeditions. Since raisins and peanuts aren't terribly exciting, consider also including other nuts (but be aware of allergies), dried fruit, M&M's® or chocolate chips, sunflower seeds, or mini-pretzels. Ask students to brainstorm a list of items they think are high in energy and would taste good in trail mix. Consider asking each student to bring in a package of something to contribute to the mix.
- Clothing (expand on with students)
- Sleeping bag
- Sleeping pad
- Ground cloth
- Climbing equipment
- Trekking poles
- Ice ax
- Snow shovel
- Camera and film
- First-aid kit
- Sunglasses and sunscreen
- Insect repellent
- Water containers
- Stove, fuel, and accessories
- Chocolate (emergency food)
- Toilet paper
There are several opportunities to expand on this topic by exploring in detail one or more of the items on the brainstormed gear list. For example, students can:
1. Contact local outfitters or search the Internet and catalogs to prepare a budget for the gear list. How much money will they need to gather the essential supplies?
2. Develop a menu and determine how much food they will need to complete the expedition.
3. Learn how to tie some essential knots, such as the Figure-8 and Bowline.
4. Assemble an expedition first-aid kit.
5. Conduct an experiment where individuals load up their backpacks and carry them around the classroom or schoolyard to determine the relationship between body weight and carrying capacity. High-altitude porters can carry between 80 and 160 pounds. What percentage of their own weight can students carry? Students can compile this data into a chart.
Day Two: Planning the route
Student teams will create itineraries for their expeditions. Print out the maps of Nevado Huascarán, Mt. Makalu, and Blair Mountain (attached below). Provide each team with a map of their mountain. If you want to continue investigating contour lines, ask each team to create a clay model of their expedition mountain using the topographic maps you've provided. Otherwise, ask the teams to read page 1 of Module 2: Planning the Route. Working in their teams, students can use the maps and information contained in their student materials to plan a realistic expedition itinerary. They can also visit the Alpine Ascents International Website to view sample itineraries for mountains around the world.
Consider designating sections of your classroom as Nevado Huascarán, Mount Makalu, and Blair Mountain. A bulletin board in each section will provide a central location for individual teams to post information, data, articles, and photographs they have collected about their mountains. Encourage students to collect additional items or images that are representative of mountains and mountain climbing. These areas can also be storage places for expedition equipment, journals, and snacks. Each day, have the teams go to their "mountains" before continuing on their expeditions.
In the Andes, modern climbers, like your students, actually follow the ancient trail of early mountaineers who climbed to over 20,000 feet for sacrifices. Not only did the Incan people climb these mountains without the use of high-tech equipment, they also managed to build ceremonial centers at these high altitudes.
In the Himalayas there are often ancient monasteries, shrines, and temples at relatively high elevations. These may have been pilgrimage sites.
Once the expedition teams have created their itineraries, it is time for them to become equipped with the necessary skills to interpret the mountain environment. To better understand mountains, students will investigate the plants, people, ethnobotany, and hydrology of their mountains. In the first leg of their expedition, students will be documenting the native vegetation of their mountains. Before they begin this investigation, introduce students to the classification and identification of some local plants. This will help them interpret the vegetation they will encounter on their expeditions. Begin by conducting the following introductory classification activity with students.
- Plant cards. Search the Internet or a regional field guide for images of plants. It is best to have a wide selection of organisms, including algae, fungi, ferns, grasses, duckweed, mosses, flowering plants, and trees. Print out and glue the pictures to cardboard or index cards and laminate them using clear contact paper.
Note: This same activity can be carried out in the classroom or greenhouse using several different varieties of potted flowering plants, mosses from outside, and duckweed from your local pet (fish) shop. The key is for students to be able to physically move the plants into their classification groups.
Taxonomists are people who specialize in the classification of things. For example, a plant taxonomist is responsible for classifying plants into Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. (An easy way to remember the order of this classification system is King Phillip Came Over From Germany Saturday!) Plant classification is often based primarily on plant reproductive structures, pollen and seed shapes, vein patterns, and epidermal hairs. In this activity, students will examine photographs of plants and classify them according to different plant characteristics.
Laying the Groundwork
Begin by asking students, Do all plants look the same? Can you name some characteristics that we could use to tell plants apart? What does it mean to classify something? If you had to classify plants, which characteristics would you use?
1. Divide the class into their expedition teams.
2. Provide each team with a selection of plant cards.
3. Have each team classify its plant photographs into X number of groups based on plant characteristics students consider to be obvious or important (e.g., showy flowers, small flowers, low-growing, tall, shiny leaves). The number X is provided by you-a realistic number based on the number of different plant photographs you provide.
4. Each team should present its classified plant photographs to the other teams, which try to guess the classification system.
5. Each team reveals the rationale behind its classification systems. Remember that there are no right or wrong answers here, as long as each team can justify how it classified the plants.
6. You can have students repeat this activity several times, each time coming up with a new way to classify the same plants.
Students apply what they have learned about the classification of plants by identifying some local flora. Conduct Schoolyard Activity: What's In My Backyard? (attached below) This activity will set the stage for the data collection students will be responsible for during the first leg of their expedition.
Day Five: The Expedition Begins
For the rest of this module and the unit, student teams will explore various aspects of their mountains as they conduct their simulated climbs. Each team has its own mountain-specific reading assignments but the three teams investigate the same topic at the same time, which facilitates class discussions and the use of recommended activities.
Students explore biodiversity for the remainder of Module 2. As they "climb" Nevado Huascarán, Mount Makalu, and Blair Mountain, they will record observations on the plants they encounter. The plants included in the student materials were selected because they represent plant features that are characteristic for a specific elevation. The intention is for students to examine these characteristics and draw some conclusions about the different types of vegetation that grow at different elevations on these mountains. Provide each student with a copy of the Mountain Plant Log (attached below) before they begin reading. Although they may not be able to fill in every column on the table, they will have enough information to make some generalizations about mountain vegetation. They will also be able to use this information to compare local and mountain flora.
Have students work in teams to read their way through the first leg of the expedition. Students can click on part 1 of their expedition to access the appropriate reading materials for Module 2. They can read on their own or take turns reading to their teammates. They are asked to collect data, brainstorm, and answer questions along the way. Below we provide the necessary information for you to effectively guide students.
Andes Expedition and Himalayan Expedition
Have a world map available in the classroom so students can locate Lima, Peru, and Kathmandu, Nepal.
One of the first things students are asked to do is convert a distance from kilometers to miles. They are provided with the information that 1 kilometer = 0.6214 miles, so they must multiply the distance in kilometers by 0.6214 to make the conversion. Take this opportunity to reinforce that not all countries use the same system of measurement as the United States.
Next, students are asked to consider the question: Do you think it is a good thing that tourists are visiting the park? Each team is asked to compile two lists regarding tourism: the pros and the cons. Once they have compiled these lists, ask them to share their ideas with the rest of the class. Make a master list on the board. Refer to the text box below for more information to help you guide students in this discussion.
Over the past 200 years, mountains have become very popular tourist destinations. Although mountain economies have benefited from tourism activities, the benefits are often outweighed by the negative impacts on the environment and culture of these regions.
Tourists spend money, which provides income, employment, and educational opportunities for local residents. Sometimes, however, the money spent by tourists does not remain in-or even make it to-the mountain region. In addition, tourism activities can have a negative impact on mountain plants, animals, and cultures. These impacts range from garbage littering the landscape to additional resources being extracted from the land to accommodate tourists.
At one point along the Nevado Huascarán hike, students are asked to come up with an explanation for why the trees at high elevations are deformed. Many trees at high elevations have a lot of growth on the side of the tree that faces the mountain, but the trunk is bare on the side of the tree that faces out. Wind causes this deformation. In the case of Huascarán, strong winds blowing up from the valley have a large impact on the trees.
At one point along the Mount Makalu hike, students are asked how juniper shrubs got dispersed across the mountain. They are given a major clue-there are birds feeding on the berries. The seeds of these fruits survive digestion intact and are dispersed to other parts of the mountain in bird scat. Once dispersed, the seeds will germinate under the right conditions, producing more juniper shrubs.
Have a map of the United States available so students can locate Ethel, West Virginia.
Note that students in this expedition, because they are in the United States, are not asked to convert a distance from kilometers to miles. This distinction provides an opportunity for you to reinforce that not all countries use the same system of measurement as the United States.
As in the Andes and Himalayan Expeditions, students are asked to consider the question: Do you think it is a good thing that tourists are visiting Blair Mountain? The team is asked to compile two lists regarding tourism: the pros and the cons. Once they have compiled these lists, ask them to share their ideas with the rest of the class. Refer to the text box above for more information to help you guide students in this discussion.
At one point along the hike, students learn that 90 percent of the old-growth forest in this part of the country was removed between 1890 and 1910. Students can research and debate this issue by role-playing landowners, timber companies, and environmentalists.
Note: It is up to your students to pursue the mission of their expedition (To find the Incan mummy, for example). To help them do this, equip the following team members of each team with the necessary information to guide their teammates' explorations. The Sacred Mountain Expert from the Andes Expedition Team is responsible for reading the National Geographic articles on Incan mummies (see Resources) and informing the rest of the team what evidence they should be looking for during their expedition. The Environmentalist on the Appalachian Expedition Team is responsible for conducting an Internet search on mountain top mining and reporting back to the rest of the team on what type of damage they might expect to see during the expedition.
At the end of the first leg of the expedition, students are asked to review their Mountain Plant Logs and categorize the plants they have seen at different elevations. Provide each team with a copy of the Mountain Vegetation Zones page (attached below). Ask teams to look at the data they have collected and describe what is happening at different elevations on their mountain. Have them represent these descriptions on the Mountain Vegetation Zones page. Challenge them to consider at which elevations transitions take place. Mountain Vegetation Zone keys for Nevado Huascarán, Mount Makalu, and Blair Mountain are attached below.
Generally, mountain flora and fauna can be grouped in terms of "life zones." Each life zone is represented by a certain elevation and temperature range in which one or several species are dominant. Dominant plants are indicator species for their life zones but the mixing of vegetation types does occur.
Andes Expedition and Himalayan Expedition
Lower slopes support the growth of large trees. As the elevation increases, these trees begin to mix with shrubs. Eventually, the climate is too harsh for woody species and the trees give way to the shrubs entirely. In the next zone, the herbaceous zone, the seasons alternate between winter and summer. Here, students will find shorter plants with narrow leaves, hugging the ground. Many of these species store and protect their plant materials below ground. As elevation increases, and students enter a zone of barren rock and rock debris, the cover of herbaceous plants thins out. Some small plants will grow in patches, and lichens and mosses are found in rock cracks and crevices. Finally, they reach the snow or nival zone. Any plants found here have the tuft or cushion growth form. Some lichen and moss can still be found on open, sunny rock faces.
In the Himalayan Mountains, the life zones have been assigned names depending on the elevation:
|Below 1,000 meters||Tropical forest|
|1,000 (3,300 feet) to 2,000 meters||Subtropical forest|
|2,000 (6,600 feet) to 3,000 meters||Temperate zone|
|3,000 (9,850 feet) to 4,000 meters||Subalpine forest|
|4,000 (13,200 feet) to 5,000 meters||Alpine pasture|
Instead of identifying different vegetation zones with altitude (as students in the other expeditions will do), students on the Appalachian expedition should recognize that at every elevation there are distinct layers to the forests on Blair Mountain. Generally, the three layers consist of the tree canopy, the shrub canopy, and the herbaceous layer.
As they analyze their plant data, students are asked to consider the question: Why do you think the same plants are not found growing everywhere on the mountain? Different types of trees, flowers, grasses, and other plants grow at specific elevations on mountain slopes because of the climate. From the warm base to the cold peak, different plants are found where they are best suited to the environment. This gives mountains their high biodiversity. For more on this subject, refer to the Background Information section of Schoolyard Activity: What's In My Backyard? (attached below)
Finally, consider challenging students to compare the plants they found in their local survey with the ones they encountered on their expeditions. Ask them, How do the characteristics of plants from these two different places compare? Are there similarities? Differences? How might you explain these similarities and differences?
Note: Since this curriculum focuses on native plants, mountain fauna isn't really elaborated on. Consider having your team Zoologists research mountain animals, such as the Andean spectacled bear, the snow leopard in the Himalayas, and the black bear in the Appalachians.
Have student teams read part 2 for the appropriate expedition. Here they are introduced to the fact that the mountain plant populations they have observed are threatened by various human activities. In the Andes, these threats include the construction of new roads and dams, resource mining, and tourist activities. In the Himalayas, the degradation of forests and grasslands from cattle grazing, deforestation, illegal hunting and the over-harvesting of wild plants threaten native plant populations. Mountaintop mining, logging, agricultural practices, and tourist activities threaten the native plants of the Appalachians.
At the same time, students are introduced to the concept of biodiversity protection. Challenge students to consider whether any places near their school or home have been set aside as protected land. By looking at a map of your state, they will be able to identify land that has been set aside for conservation purposes. This land can range in size from a small town park to a large national park.
Each expedition team is also introduced to the concept of ecotourism. Students investigate the question: What is ecotourism? using the Internet or other available resources. Ask them to consider the relevance of ecotourism to the protection of Nevado Huascarán, Mt. Makalu, and Blair Mountain.
The World Conservation Union (1996) defines ecotourism as "environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas-in order to enjoy and appreciate nature-that promote conservation, have low negative visitor impact, and provide for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations."
Students investigate and compare the threats to biodiversity locally and on their distant mountains in Classroom Activity: Think Globally, Act Locally (attached below).
Day Nine: Expedition de-briefing
Leave some time at the end of this expedition leg for students to reflect on the "day's" experiences in their journals. Related to biodiversity, you might ask students to respond to the question: What does it mean to be a green climber?
At the end of the expedition day, ask students to also record in their journals any new evidence they have of the female Incan mummy (Andes team), the yeti (Himalayan team), or damage from mountain top mining (Appalachian team). This is a good time for the Sacred Mountain Expert, the Zoologist, and the Environmentalist to share with their teammates what they know about the Incan mummy, the yeti, and mountain top mining, respectively. Ask them, what evidence did you discover? What made you think it might be related to the mummy? To the yeti? To mountain top mining? Encourage them to be creative and let their imaginations run wild during this time. At the end of the unit, students can use these journal entries to generate a report that they will send to their expedition sponsors, either the National Geographic Society, The Mountain Institute, or the Environmental Protection Agency.
Journal entries: Compilation of gear list; Creation of expedition itinerary; Answers to questions; Reflections on expedition experience.
Expedition de-briefing: Contributions to class discussion; Application of knowledge acquired during expedition; Observations on expedition mission.
Other: Collaborative group work; Research skills; Participation in activities; Ability to compile and analyze gathered data.
Students can calculate and compile a temperature conversion chart; create an expedition first-aid kit; design a chart correlating body weight to carrying capacity; learn how to tie knots; prepare a realistic budget; prepare menus; make trail mix; create a clay model of expedition mountain; designate sections of the classroom to mountains and continue to maintain and update displays.
Cummings, P. and Cummings, L. 1998. Talking with Adventurers: Conversations with Christina Allen, Robert Ballard, Michael Blakey, Ann Bowles, David Doubilet, Jane Goodall, Dereck & Beverly Joubert. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC. [ISBN: 0-7922-7068-1] Conversations with 12 field-based research scientists, including Johan Reinhard.
Reading level: Ages 4-8
Egan, J. 1992. Lost on a Mountain in Maine. Beech Tree Publishing, Guildford, UK. [ISBN: 0-6881-1573-X]
A true story about a young boy's adventure on a Maine mountain. Reading level: Ages 9-12
Alpine Ascents International
Expedition descriptions, expedition reports archive, training guides, gear lists, itineraries, and photographs for mountains around the world.
MountainZone.com: Trekking to Everest
Daily log of a trek from Kathmandu to the base of Mount Everest, the tallest mountain in the world.
Trekking in Nepal
National Geographic Society site reporting the sights, sounds, and stories encountered on a trek around Nepal.
Native Plants/Animals: General
Beaubaire, N. 1998. Native Perennials: North American Beauties. Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY. [ISBN: 0-9453-5292-1]
Jones, S.B. and Foote, L.E. 1991. Gardening with Native Wild Flowers. Timber Press, Portland, OR. [ISBN: 0-8819-2381-8]
Marinelli, J. 1996. Going Native: Biodioversity in Our Own Backyards. Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY. [ISBN: 0-9453-5285-9]
Nicholls, G. 2002. Alpine Plants of North America: An Encyclopedia of Mountain Flowers from the Rockies to Alaska. Timber Press, Portland, OR. [ISBN: 0-8819-2548-9]
Taylor, D. 1992. Endangered Mountain Animals. Crabtree Publishing Company, New York, NY. [ISBN: 0-8650-5541-6]
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
Exploring the Native Plant World curriculum provides K-6 teachers with the tools to teach basic botanical and ecological concepts, introduce students to the beauty and value of native flora, and give students the skills they need to become good stewards of the earth. Native Plant Guide is an online guide students can use to compile lists of native plants, including photos and detailed descriptions, for regions throughout the country.
Native Plants/Animals: Himalayas
Denniston, D. 1993. Saving the Himalaya. World Watch: 6(6): 10.
Describes the impact of economic development on Himalayan Mountain ecosystems.
Jermyn, J. 2001. The Himalayan Garden. Timber Press, Portland, OR. [ISBN: 0-8819-2500-4]
Yoshida, T. 2002. Portraits of Himalayan Flowers. Timber Press, Portland, OR. [ISBN: 0-8819-2551-9]
Native Plants/Animals: Appalachia
Anonymous. 1989. From Mountains to Metal. Science and Children: 27(3): 41.
Describes the process of removing minerals from the earth and refining them for use.
Native Plants for Conservation, Restoration, and Landscaping
Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage site provides information about native plants in Appalachia.
West Virginia Department of Natural Resources
A Website about West Virginia wildlife, in the heart of the Appalachian Mountains.
|Module 2 National Standards||53.96 KB|
|Think Globally, Act Locally||21.21 KB|
|What's in My Backyard?||23.96 KB|
|Expedition Descriptions||7.5 KB|
|Role Cards||7.95 KB|
|Mountain Plant Log||6.07 KB|
|Mountain Vegetation Zones||3.43 KB|
|Andes Zone Key||256.44 KB|
|Appalachian Zone Key||306.43 KB|
|Himalayan Zone Key||149.32 KB|